Types of cargo – classification, basic properties of cargo
Types of cargo – classification, basic properties of cargo
- by the method of transportation: road, rail, air, river and sea
- by weight: net - without packaging, - and gross, that is, packed
- by size
- by state of aggregation: solid, liquid, gaseous
- by expiration date: perishable and no expiration date
- by climatic regime: whether special environmental conditions are required for transportation
- by hazard: explosive, flammable, radioactive, poisonous and others
- by the method of loading and unloading: piece, bulk, bulk, liquid, container and others.
- Piece or general. An extensive category of goods, the nomenclature of which is calculated in pieces (places), can be either in containers or without.
- Bulk and bulk. Any bulk cargo of medium or large fraction: peat, gravel, coal, grain and others.
- Dusty or powdery. Any powdery bulk cargo requires slightly different conditions than bulk cargo, due to their tendency to spray.
- Bulk. Liquids of any consistency: liquefied gas, oil products, water and others are transported in tanks or barrels.
- Gaseous. For transportation of non-liquefied gases, sealed containers are required to prevent volatilization.
- Perishable. Food, pharmaceuticals and chemicals that require specific temperature and humidity conditions.
- Oversized. They are often - but not always - heavy. These are goods whose dimensions exceed the limits established by the rules. Their transportation is regulated by law.
- Dangerous and especially dangerous. Any cargo that poses a threat to humans or the environment.
Separately, it is worth noting the category of goods, which have special requirements for storage conditions, loading and unloading, transportation and warehousing. Also, when handling such goods, compliance with certain regulations established by law is often required.
Specific cargo includes the following types:
- oversized: when submerged exceeds 4 meters in height or 2.65 meters in width
- long: hanging from the tailgate by more than 2 meters
- heavy: the weight of one piece exceeds 0.25 tons or 0.4 tons for rolled cargo
- perishable: require transportation in refrigerated trucks or insulated containers
- unsanitary: diffuses unpleasant odors or dust
- dangerous (ADR): pose a threat to people, the environment or the integrity of the material base.
Types of dangerous goods
Dangerous goods have special requirements for vehicles, personnel qualifications and transportation mode. Their transportation is permissible only with a special license permitting this activity. Such goods should only be trusted by highly qualified professionals.
These cargoes are divided by hazard class:
- class: explosives
- class: gases under pressure
- class: flammable liquids
- class: flammable and self-igniting substances
- class: oxidants and organic peroxides
- class: poisonous and infectious substances
- class: radioactive materials
- class: corrosive substances
- class: rest.
There are also subclasses that specify the degree of risk and special rules when handling certain goods.
Organization of transportation
An important role in the organization of logistics is played by the packaging of the cargo or its individual parts. It ensures proper safety and anticipates possible harmful environmental factors. The cargo may initially not have any packaging, and then the tasks of organizing it fall on the sender or the company carrying out the transportation.
- consumer: own packaging of the cargo, provided by its manufacturer
- additional: boxes, covers, bags, fillers that protect against minor external influences
- transport: durable packaging made of wood, metal or plastic.
When choosing packaging, it is important that it protects the cargo from all factors harmful to it, and also prevents the possible harmful or destructive effect of the cargo itself. It is also important that after packing there is no significant increase in the dimensions and weight of the cargo. There are certain standards for packaging requirements.
External influences are limited to the following list:
- mechanical: shock, scratches, vibration, squeezing
- climatic: precipitation, sunlight, wind and other atmospheric phenomena
- biological: exposure to bacteria, mold, fungi and pests.
Symbols and markingsSpecial designations are applied to the packaging of the cargo. They are a set of standard symbols or icons designed to inform the personnel of the transport company about the nature of the cargo, the conditions of its transportation, unloading, loading and storage. Also, the marking includes information about the characteristics, the sender and the recipient of the cargo: addresses, names of organizations and / or the names of specific responsible persons, weight and dimensions, quantity in established units of measurement.
- Fragile - Cargo should be handled with care
- Protect from sunlight - The load should not be exposed to the sun
- Protect from moisture - The cargo is afraid of moisture
- Protect from radiation - The cargo is sensitive to any type of radiation
- Temperature limitation - Cargo must be stored at the specified temperature
- Perishable cargo - Cargo requires special storage conditions as a perishable cargo
- Sealed packaging - Do not open or tamper with the packaging
- Not to be hooked - Do not use hooks when handling the load
- Strapping location - Indicates where the straps are to be attached
- It is prohibited to lift with a cart here - Indicates a place where the use of a cart is prohibited.
- Top - Indicates that the cargo must be stored and transported in an upright position
- Lifting directly by the load - It is forbidden to lift the load by the package
- Open Here - Indicates where to open the package
- Protect Against Radiation - The cargo is afraid of radioactive radiation
- Do not roll - Do not roll the load to move.
- Do not pinch - Do not crush the package in the designated areas
- Clamp here - Indicates the places for which the load can be taken
- Stacked Tiers Restriction - Cargo cannot be stacked above the specified number of tiers
- Stacking Limited - Limits the stacking conditions
- Stacking is prohibited - It is forbidden to stack other goods on the cargo with this marking
- Tropical Packaging - This mark is used to mark shipments transported to tropical countries. He indicates that the cargo is susceptible to the effects of the tropical climate. The month and year of packaging are indicated below the line.